Results of the computer generated MMPI-2-RF for Mr. I. are as follows:
Mr. I. is a 46-year old married man who has been admitted for psychotic thoughts and assaultive behavior. Symptoms at the time of admittance include disturbed sleep, delusional thoughts, religious delusion, visual hallucinations, as well as erratic and circumstantial thinking. A prior diagnosis of Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder is noted. As indicated in the report, Mr. I. appears to have dispersed patterns of cognitive dysfunction. He may have memory impairments, becomes frustrated easily, does not handle stress well, and has difficulty concentrating. Mr. I. may have had thoughts or has attempted suicide and continues to be at risk as he lacks impulse control. He also reports that he believes he may be being harmed. He is suspicious of others as a result, he lacks insight and experiences interpersonal difficulties. His thought process is not typical, unrealistic, and disorganized. Impaired sensory-perceptual abilities also appears to be present. Mr. I. has difficulty controlling his behavior as he is becomes bored and restless, often times acting out. He tends to be aggressive and have mood swings, euphoria, excitability, engages in risk-taking behaviors, increased energy, and may have experienced manic or hypomanic episodes. Mr. I. appears to be opinionated, assertive, outgoing, a leader, and enjoys socializing. The report indicates Mr. I. enjoys hands-on type of activities and the outdoors. Individuals who enjoy these type of activities or careers tend to be adventurous and dislikes literary occupations. Further evaluation has been recommended for disorders related to emotional-internalizing, thoughts, and behavioral-externalizing. Suicide is a risk that requires immediate assessing. Treatment for hypomania and mood stabilization is recommended in addition to a psychological evaluation.
Evaluation of Mr. I. and Ms. S.
The psychological evaluation of Mr. I. and Ms. S. raises ethical and professional concerns regarding the interpretation of the testing and assessment data. Confidentiality of the test results and information related to the client must be kept private. When interpreting data, the psychologist must be aware of various factors including: the test taking ability, the purpose of the test, as well as various characteristics of the client that may impact the psychologists’ judgments which may cause the interpretation to be inaccurate (American Psychological Association, 2010). In addition, the psychologist should be cautious of the way the information is presented to Mr. I. and Ms. S. as to not harm, but inform the clients of the results in a professional manner and explain any further evaluations or procedures to be done.
The MMPI-2-RF measures a variety of areas, but does not have as many questions as the original MMPI-2. The reduction in length appears to be a positive change as the examinee may not get as burned out from test taking. The assessment measures characteristics that describes the individual. Rather than the examinee being diagnosed with a specific disorder, the results of the assessment attempts to provide an explanation of the individual. The test produces 2 scale raw scores, which are then convert to TScores. TScores that are greater than 65 are typically uncommon in the general population, thus psychiatric symptomatology may be present (Gregory, 2014). Four validity scales are reviewed including: Cannot Say, L, F, and K. The Cannot Say answer appears to have little effect on the overall scoring as the test consists of many questions. A high score may indicate a reading problem or other various issues caused by depression, which would provide information related to depression as indicated by Ms. S. The L Scale provides information is not very typical in our culture as it perceives a person as “perfect” in a sense as they never get angry, never lies, likes all people, etc. (Gregory, 2014). The L Scale would provide information related to the aggressive tendencies of Mr. I. A high TScore on the L Scale may indicate the individual is defensive and naïve. This score is helpful when assessing characteristics of Mr. I. related to uptight and neurotic tendencies. Psychiatric disturbances may be present in individuals with a higher TScore on the F Scale. Results related to psychiatric disturbances would be helpful for the assessment of Mr. I and Ms. S. Finally, a defensive test-taking attitude may exist amongst individuals with higher TScores on the K Scale. Finally, these scores would provide information related to both Mr. I. and Ms. S. in the assessment of depressive as indicated by Ms. S and schizophrenic symptoms as indicated by Mr. I.
Additional Testing for Mr. I.:
The following assessments are recommended for Mr. I.: NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO PI-R) and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). The NEO PI-R contains five domains which are measured. Within each domain are facets. These categories appear to relate to the interpretation of Mr. I’s MMPI-2-RF report. It was indicated that Mr. I. has aggressive behavior and has experienced manic or hypomanic episodes, thus the domain of neuroticism would provide information in these areas. In addition, the report indicated he is a thrill seeker, in which the extraversion domain would provide additional information. The openness to experience domain may provide data related to his actions, feelings and ideas. This assessment may provide additional information related to Mr. I’s personality thus uncovering additional information in other areas. Although only three items are assessed for validity, validity evidence is substantial and is a beneficial measure of clinical psychopathology (Gregory, 2014).
The MSCEIT contains 141 items that calculates a total emotional intelligence score. In addition, the assessment provides 2 Area scores, 4 Branch scores, and 8 Task scores. Various perspectives have given insight to the validity of the MSCEIT. Some research indicates the assessment measures a unitary skill that can be categorized into four categories while other research indicates verbal intelligence, general intelligence and major factors of personality reveal low correlations (Gregory, 2014). However, emotional intelligence is beneficial and the scores hold strong as it provides insight to various behaviors such as violence which is indicated by Mr. I.
Additional testing for Ms. S.:
The following assessments are recommended for Ms. S.: Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) and The Assessment of Spirituality and Religious Sentiments (ASPIRES).
The MCMI-III would be helpful in making a psychiatric diagnosis. The test consists of 175 true and false questions and it’s structure works well with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). A total of 27 scales exist which measures personality traits, personality pathology, and severe clinical syndromes as well as validity scale indices. Internal consistency and test-retest coefficients are good and the support for validity is mixed as the assessment is complex and difficult to understand (Gregory, 2014). This assessment would be helpful especially in providing additional information related to anxiety and depression as noted in the interpretation results for Ms. S.
The ASPIRES assessment would be useful as the assessment of spiritual well-being assists in measuring a number of issues including anxiety and depression. The assessment consists of 35 items and measures two dimensions including: spiritual transcendence and religious sentiments, both of which are further subdivided into facets. The assessment has strong psychometric qualities. Measuring diverse religious groups and cultures, the test holds true (Gregory, 2014). Finally, the findings of validity of APIRES is strong and holds true to the belief that spirituality is supplemental across the Big Five personality measurements.