Explain how encroaching bracken reduces the area of heather.


3. (continued) (g) Identify the two soil profiles shown below and give a reason for your choice. Profile X Found in areas of deciduous forest Profile Y Found in areas of coniferous forest

4. (a) Heather moorland can be managed to support a red grouse population. This is vital to maintain the economic viability of sporting estates. The total area of heather moorland in Scotland is decreasing. The diagram below shows some of the factors which have contributed to this. Encroaching of bracken, a large fern-like plant, into areas of heather

Overgrazing by livestock

Draining of boggy areas resulting in • increased grazing for livestock; • decreases in insect populations, insects are essential in diet of young grouse

Wildlife impacts • heather beetle destroys young heather; • feral goats and red deer destroy heather through grazing

4. (a) (continued) (i) European farming subsidies were previously based on the number of livestock kept on the moorland. Describe the impact this has had on the moorland environment.


1 (ii) Explain how encroaching bracken reduces the area of heather.

1 (iii) UK government grants were awarded to improve drainage of moorland for agricultural improvement. Describe and explain how this policy affected the red grouse population

4. (continued) (b) Langholm Moor in Southern Scotland is a Special Protection Area (SPA), because of the presence of hen harriers. Hen harriers prey on red grouse, voles and meadow pipits. Adult red grouse eat heather shoots, use the heather plants as cover and nest on the ground. A study has been carried out to resolve the conflict between the management of moorland for hen harriers and for red grouse. The conclusions included: • increase and restore the heather habitat and manage livestock; • control vermin populations of fox, stoat and carrion crow which feed on red grouse; • give out medicated grit to control the parasitic worm infecting grouse; • diversionary feeding of harriers; • import grouse from other moors. (i) From the information above select: 1 a predator;

2 a habitat. 1 (ii) Suggest why there is a conflict between red grouse management and hen harrier conservation.

2 (iii) Why is it especially important to control the number of vermin in the spring when the chicks hatch?
4. (b) (continued) (iv) The population of hen harriers is monitored. Why is this good scientific practice?


1 (c) Japanese knotweed is an alien species introduced into the UK as an ornamental plant. It is not eaten by native species but spreads very quickly and is very hard to eradicate. Suggest and explain the effect Japanese knotweed is having on populations of native plant and animal species.

5. (a) The maps below show the distribution of blanket peat and coniferous woodland in Scotland. The total land area of Scotland is 7·71 million hectares. Several statutory and voluntary conservation agencies/organisations own, lease, or manage by agreement, large areas of this land for conservation. The area of land held by five of these organisations is shown in the table below. (Map data from the Macaulay Institute.) Distribution of Blanket Peat (shaded areas) Distribution of Coniferous Woodland (shaded areas)

Agency/conservation organisation Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH) Forestry Commission Scotland (FCS) Scottish Wildlife Trust (SWT) John Muir Trust (JMT)

Hectares 70 316 35 800 668 000 20 000 75 000

5. (a) (continued) Answer the following questions using information from the maps and table. (i) Comment on the distribution of blanket peat compared to that of coniferous woodland.


1 (ii) Calculate the percentage of Scotland’s total land area collectively owned, leased or managed for conservation by these five organisations. Space for calculation

Answer (b) Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH) is a statutory agency. (i) What is meant by a statutory agency?






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